►► Photoshop Basic for Beginners part-20 || how to use zoom and Zoom out tool

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►► Photoshop Basic for Beginners part-20 || how to use zoom and Zoom out tool

How to Use the Zoom Settings on Your Camera
By [http://EzineArticles.com/expert/John_A_Burton/99660]John A Burton

Normal Lenses

A "normal" (or standard) lens is one that reproduces a field of view that generally looks natural to a human eye. In other words, the subject appears the same size when viewed through the lens as it does when observed with the naked eye, and there is no apparent distortion of the image: normal lenses are neither wide-angle nor telephoto. For a 35 mm film camera, the "normal" lens adopted by most manufacturers was a focal length of 50 mm.

Wide-angle Lenses

A wide-angle lens has a focal length substantially smaller than that of a normal lens. A typical 35 mm film camera wide-angle lens most commonly had a focal length of 35 mm or 28 mm. This type of lens allows more of the scene to be included in the photograph, but it does much more than simulate being further away from the subject.

Wide-angle lenses emphasis the difference in size and distance between objects. Nearby objects appear somewhat larger, and objects at a distance appear comparatively smaller. This exaggeration of relative sizes can be used to make foreground objects more prominent and striking, while capturing expansive backgrounds.

A consequence of using a wide-angle lens is emphasize perspective distortion: parallel lines converge more. For example, buildings can appear to be bent or falling backwards when the camera is pointed upward from ground.

Wide-angle lenses have a large "depth of field". Briefly means more they allow more of the scene to be in sharp focus: when the focus is on the near subject, the background will likely be in focus too.

Wide-angle zoom lens settings are good for architectural, interior and landscape photography: any scene where a large space needs to be captured. They are not intended to be an alternative to moving further away from the subject.

Telephoto Lenses

Telephoto lenses are sometimes broken into two sub-types: medium telephoto (85 mm to 135 mm for 35 mm film format), and super telephoto (over 300 mm in 35 mm film format).

Telephoto lenses are best known for making distant objects appear magnified. In 35 mm photography (where 50 mm is the standard focal length), a 100 mm lens would make the subject appear twice as large; a 200 mm lens would make it appear four times as large, etc.

Obviously telephoto lenses do have an application in getting closer to a subject than is physically possible (such as wildlife photography using super telephoto lenses), but other optical effects occur, which are opposite to those of a wide-angle lens.

Long lenses appear to compress the distance between objects (make them appear closer together). They tend to better preserve parallels (do not make linear objects appear to lean or bend).

Telephoto lenses also have a shallower depth of field, so when focused on the subject or foreground, blurring of the background occurs. Long lenses therefore make it easier to blur the background more (de-focus the background in an image to help the subject standout).

Aside from getting closer, one significant application of medium telephoto lenses is portrait photography.

Portrait Lenses

Lenses used in portrait photography are typically fast (I.e. they have a large aperture), medium telephoto lenses with a focal length of 85 mm to 135 mm.

Lens of this focal length provide the most flattering perspective distortion for head and shoulders portraits. Wider-angle lenses require portraits to be taken closer, and the consequential perspective distortion makes noses relatively larger. Portrait lenses do the opposite.

Fast, wide aperture lenses are preferable because they allow shallow depth of field (blurring the background, which may otherwise be distracting). The large aperture also yields a "soft focus" effect (if the eyes are in sharp focus, the ears and nose will be slightly out of focus and appear softer).
Summary

A zoom lens is frequently a wide-angle, normal, medium telephoto/portrait, and super telephoto lens all in one neat package. Each lens has a particular use, and characteristics that enhance some scenes/subjects while tarnishing others. It is not a devise designed merely to save the user a walk towards, or away from the subject, and should not be used thoughtlessly. [http://www.camera.portraits.srv2.com/index.htm]My film camera collection [http://photography.tutsplus.com/tutorials/exploring-how-focal-length-affects-images--photo-6508]This site provides a very good demonstration of how differing focal length lens settings compress perspective, and influence depth of field.

Article Source: [http://EzineArticles.com/?How-to-Use-the-Zoom-Settings-on-Your-Camera&id=6966151] How to Use the Zoom Settings on Your Camera

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